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Sustainable Agriculture

Farm and Ranch Practices

Farmers and ranchers can choose many ways to improve their sustainability, and these vary from region to region, state to state and farm to farm. However, some common sets of practices have emerged, many of them aimed at greater use of on-farm or local resources. Some of those practices are described here, each contributing in some way to long-term farm profitability, environmental stewardship and improved quality of life.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

IPM is an approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools in ways that minimize economic, health and environmental risks.

Rotational Grazing

Management-intensive grazing systems take animals out of the barn and into the pasture to provide high-quality forage and reduced feed costs while avoiding manure buildup.

Soil Conservation

Many soil conservation methods, including strip cropping, reduced tillage, and no-till, help prevent loss of soil caused by wind and water erosion.

Water Quality/Wetlands

Water conservation and protection have become important parts of agricultural stewardship. Practices such as planting riparian buffer strips can improve the quality of drinking and surface water, as well as protect wetlands.

Cover Crops

Growing plants such as rye, clover, or vetch after harvesting a grain or vegetable crop or intercropping them can provide several benefits, including weed suppression, erosion control, and improved soil nutrients and soil quality.

Crop/Landscape Diversity

Growing a greater variety of crops and livestock on a farm can help reduce risks from extremes in weather, market conditions, or pests. Increased diversity of crops and other plants, such as trees and shrubs, also can contribute to soil conservation, wildlife habitat, and increased populations of beneficial insects.

Nutrient Management

Proper management of manure, nitrogen, and other plant nutrients can improve the soil and protect the environment. Increased use of on-farm nutrient sources, such as manure and leguminous cover crops, also reduces purchased fertilizer costs.


Agroforestry covers a range of tree uses on farms, including inter-planting trees (such as walnuts) with crops or pasture, growing shade-loving specialty crops in forests, better managing woodlots and windbreaks, and using trees and shrubs along streams as buffer strips.

Alternative Marketing

Farmers and ranchers across the country are finding that innovative marketing strategies can improve profits. Direct marketing of agricultural goods may include selling at farmers markets, roadside stands, or through the World Wide Web; delivering to restaurants and small grocers; and running community-supported agriculture (CSA) enterprises.


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