Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

The research revealed that nearly a third of ag-related injuries involve youths. Small farms are family-oriented businesses, and often they involve all family members. Children who are helping or visiting the farm are exposed to hazards they may not understand or know how to react to. Credit: Linda Fetzer/Penn State.

Study Reveals Agriculture-Related Injuries More Numerous than Previously Known

Guest Author
Jeff Mulhollem, Penn State

This story originally appeared on the Penn State website and is reprinted with permission.

This week is National Farm Safety and Health Week. The 2019 data for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates that the agricultural sector is still the most dangerous in America with 573 fatalities, or an equivalent of 23.1 deaths per 100,000 workers.

Fall harvest time can be one of the busiest and most dangerous seasons of the year for the agriculture industry. For this reason, the third week of September has been recognized as National Farm Safety and Health Week. This annual promotion initiated by the National Safety Council has been proclaimed as such by each sitting U.S. President since Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944. National Farm Safety and Health Week is led by the National Education Center for Agricultural Safety, the agricultural partner of the National Safety Council.

A study supported by USDA’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture by Penn State researchers, who looked at emergency room admissions across the U.S. over a recent five-year period in a new way, suggests that the agriculture industry is even more dangerous than previously believed.

The research revealed that from Jan. 1, 2015, to Dec. 31, 2019, more than 60,000 people were treated in emergency departments for nonfatal, agricultural-related injuries. Significantly, nearly a third of those injured were youths, according to study author Judd Michael, Penn State professor of agricultural and biological engineering, College of Agricultural Sciences.

“This study revealed the true magnitude of the agricultural-related injury problem,” he said. “We were slightly surprised at the sheer number of farm-related injuries and concerned by the high number of youths who were injured.”

Before this research, knowledge of nonfatal agricultural injuries was somewhat limited by the available sources of information, Michael noted. Existing data are based mostly on regional or national periodic surveys, he added. The Bureau of Labor Statistics captures only nonfatal occupational injuries through its Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, often called the SOII.

That survey collects data on work-related nonfatal injuries and illnesses among employees in all industries in the U.S. But its data exclude self-employed farmers and family members as well as workers on farms with fewer than 11 employees.

“It has been estimated that the SOII was undercounting occupational injuries and illnesses in agriculture by about 78%,” Michael said.

To reach their conclusion, researchers conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System — or NEISS — for patients treated in emergency departments over the five-year period. By querying all cases in the NEISS database using the location code “farm,” and with a narrative search using relevant key words, they created a unique view of one of the country’s most dangerous occupations.

Over the period, an estimated 62,079 people were treated in an emergency department for agricultural-related injuries. The mean age estimate in this population was 39 years old, with ages ranging from 1 to 95. Almost two-thirds of patients were male, and almost 80% were white. Approximately 30% and 22% of those injured were young and elderly patients, respectively. These age groups are usually not present in the typical workforce but are involved in agriculture.

According to findings published in the Journal of Agromedicine, most injuries occurred from April through September. The most common injury was fracture, followed by open wound or amputation. The primary source of injury was in the vehicles category, with tractors being the dominant vehicle type.

Historically, researchers have known that young people are at greater risk than adults for injury around a farm or ag environment, but it is not necessarily because they are working, Michael noted. Rather, in family farm environments where the kids are present, they are exposed to dangers.

“Small farms are family-oriented businesses, and often they have all their family members helping out,” he said. “And the kids who are helping out or visiting the farm are exposed to hazards that they may not understand or know how to react to. They're not mature enough to foresee hazardous situations. And that leads to injuries or worse, in some cases, fatalities.”

Getting a better handle on the number of agriculture-related injuries and how they occur is important, Michael pointed out, because that knowledge may lead to a reduction in accidents.

“Agriculture and forestry are among the most hazardous industries in the U.S., and part of our overall goal here at Penn State in the ag safety and health program is to conduct research that will help us understand the causes of injuries and fatalities,” he said. “Because we know that if we understand why they happen, it's much easier to prevent them.”

Top photo: The research revealed that nearly a third of ag-related injuries involve youths. Small farms are family-oriented businesses, and often they involve all family members. Children who are helping or visiting the farm are exposed to hazards they may not understand or know how to react to.  Credit: Linda Fetzer/Penn State.

Farm Bill Priority Areas
Agriculture systems and technology
U.S. States and Territories

Your feedback is important to us.

Take the Website Survey