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Through the federal budget system, the President and Congress determine the allocation of resources among Federal Government agencies. NIFA uses these funds to catalyze transformative discoveries, education, and engagement to address agricultural challenges.

Budget Process

NIFA’s Budget Staff is accountable for the agency’s role in each of the three interrelated phases of the federal budget process:

  • Submission of the President’s Budget Proposal
  • Congressional development and passage of appropriations
  • Execution of the agency's appropriated budget to support grant programs

President’s Budget

Submission of the President’s Budget Proposal—the first phase in the federal budget process—takes place on or about the first Monday in February. The President’s budget policy proposes funding levels for the upcoming budget year beginning on October 1. NIFA’s Budget Staff formulates the agency’s segment of the proposal as shown in the explanatory notes (NIFA’s Congressional justifications).

Congressional Action

During the next phase of the budget process, Congress reviews the President's Budget Proposal and develops allocations for the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees to use in developing annual spending bills. Throughout this phase, NIFA’s Budget Staff monitors Congressional actions. Previous Congressional actions are available from the NIFA's archived budget information page.

Agency Budget Execution

After Congress passes the budget and the President signs it into law, funds are appropriated to federal agencies. Discretionary appropriations for NIFA are provided under the annual Agriculture Appropriations Act, while mandatory appropriations may be provided through the Farm Bill and other authorizing legislation under the jurisdiction of the Agriculture Committees. NIFA oversees how the budget is executed in the award of federal funds to support the agency’s grant programs.

Related Resources

Budget & Legislation


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